I’m desperately trying to pass my driving license exam (so far no good). I thought that maybe art and Tracy Chapman could give me some speeding vibes in the car?
This drawing presents the original idea for the first self-propelled vehicle in history. Leonardo probably designed it for one of his patrons as a ‘show-piece’. Well, it definitely made an impression. If you’re curious what it looked like, you can find the replica at the museum Clos Lucé, near Château d’Amboise, in France.
Filippo Tommaso Marinetti devoted to cars in the Founding Manifesto of Futurism from 1909 a whole point number 4: “We affirm that the world’s magnificence has been enriched by a new beauty: the beauty of speed. A racing car whose hood is adorned with great pipes, like serpents of explosive breath—a roaring car that seems to ride on grapeshot is more beautiful than the Victory of Samothrace.” (translation by R.W. Flint). Well, I was never convinced by this, but all the Futurists were. They dedicated many drawings and paintings to the study of movement and speed.
Around 1913 Balla turned to the studies of movement and as a study case he chose cars which had been manufactured in Italy only for a decade. In numerous studies to this work, he focused his attention on the landscape is being altered “by the passage of a car through the atmosphere” (Virginia Dortch Dorazio, Giacomo Balla: An Album of His Life and Work (New York: Wittenborn, 1969). Some suggest that this work is a central panel to a triptych.
It was always Gala behind the wheel of the Cadillac because Dalí never got a driver’s license. Nevertheless, unlike most surrealists, he often depicted cars, often imbuing them with meaning: here, by presenting a fossilised car and the rocks of Cap de Creus in Catalonia, he created a juxtaposition. Cars, a recent human invention which uses fossil fuel, are linked in a way to fossil materials, which are in turn immemorial in time. Tricky, isn’t it?
Here we have a Surrealist ‘wink wink’ at Marinetti’s manifesto since Dalí presents Victory of Samothrace surrounded by two cars. Does he compare the beauty of the machine to the classical ideal? Or is it a parody of Futurists? And can we treat as the answer his 1929 note that “The most perfect and most precise metaphors come to us today coined and rendered objectively by the industry”.
Here it gets even trickier. Rauschenberg made a step further in the study of movement and especially artistic expression and authorship. As a provocative response to Abstract Expressionism, which was the most popular trend in the 1950s in the States, all about artistic license to express oneself, Rauschenberg made an expressive act/drawing/print/performance/ installation piece (you name it): he asked his friend John Cage to drive a Ford in a straight line over twenty sheets of paper laid by him on the road outside his studio in Lower Manhattan. Was the work still Rauschenberg’s if he didn’t make it with his own hand? If yes, what makes one an artist in the automatized era?