Recently, in the majority of countries all over the world, people felt like they were “in the middle of the Apocalypse”. Why does everyone naturally associate that word with the feeling of living in a huge disaster, even the end of the world? Because it’s impossible not to have seen at least one of the dramatic art representations of the famous, mysterious, and extravagant Book of Revelation, The Apocalypse.
The Book of Revelation
The Book of Revelation is the final book of the New Testament of the Christian Bible, probably written by Saint John. The other name “Apocalypse” comes from the first word of the Greek text: apokalypsis, meaning exactly “unveiling” or “revelation”.
The book is full of symbolic and obscure images, which therefore can be interpreted in various ways. Some lecturers thought that the events described were a representation of the whole history of mankind, or just of the first centuries of Christianity. Others were sure that the book might be a series of prophecies about the future end of the world and the coming of the kingdom of God. Meanwhile, in another view, the Revelation is just an allegory of the spiritual path and the struggle between good and evil.
However, which is the (most) correct interpretation does not matter. The important point for the artists (and often for their patrons) was the power of apocalyptic scenes. This made them an ideal subject for majestic, shocking, and unforgettable oeuvres. In this way, religious men could use them as a warning for the end of either every man individually or of the entirety mankind, and thus inviting people not to sin anymore. Additionally, artists could be remembered forever thanks to their incredibly powerful works.
Although a lot of events happen in the book, three are especially favored moments by artists.
Apocalypse in Art
The Four Horsemen
In Chapter Six, four mysterious creatures ride four unnatural horses: a white one, a red one, a black one, and a pale one. Only the identity of the fourth rider is surely known: it is Death. “And I looked, and behold, a pale horse, and the one sitting on it, the name of him was Death, and Hades was following with him” (Revelation 6:8). The other three companions do not have explicit names, but surely they come to help Death destroy everything. They are probably Famine, War, and Plague/Pestilence. In other interpretations, they are Conquest, War, and Pestilence (or Famine).
Albrecht Dürer did a series of fifteen woodcuts about the Apocalypse. The most famous of them is The Four Horsemen. He transformed a previously static and boring image into a representation full of motion and danger. Thanks to its mastery, the observer can almost hear the horses hooves clopping!
Dürer’s genius was even able to translate the distinctive colors of the horses into a black-and-white medium, making the characters recognizable through weapons and order of apparition. In fact, the horsemen seem to appear from background to foreground, slightly overlapping, in the same order as they appear in the book. The parallel lines crossing the image give both a direction and a middle tone. The lines also create the illusion that the horsemen are actually riding across the composition from left to right. Meanwhile the tone allows the figures to powerfully emerge through contrast. Finally, the lines are used to recreate the Mouth of Hell, just in a slightly diagonal direction (upper left).
Death on a Pale Horse
William Blake preferred to represent only Death on a Pale Horse. Actually, the rider on the black horse appears here too (probably Famine or Plague).
This watercolor is extremely energetic, more definitely directed towards the upper right. Like in Dürer’s woodcut, a figure in the upper part of the work seems to be an angelic presence. This is suggested by feathers and is probably an image of divine protection. In this work, colors help to give a precise identity to the figures without adding further detail, and especially creating the atmosphere of a nightmare.
The Woman of the Apocalypse
Chapter Twelve opens with the appearance of a very particular woman:
“A great and wondrous sign appeared in heaven: a woman clothed with the sun, with the moon under her feet and a crown of twelve stars on her head. She was pregnant and cried out in pain as she was about to give birth.”Revelation 12:1,2
The woman gives birth to a male child who is threatened by a dragon, identified as the Evil. However, God takes away the child and, immediately afterwards, War in Heaven breaks out.
The impact of this majestic Woman, generally identified as the Virgin Mary but in other opinions an allegory of the Church itself, fascinated many artists. These included the Flemish master Peter Paul Rubens. He created an oil sketch of the subject, meant to serve as the modello for a vast altarpiece.
A landscape is perceivable mainly on the bottom right, while a tumultuous heavenly battle wraps around the central figure of the woman. She shows some traditional iconic details of the Virgin Mary: she wears white and blue dresses and crushes the head of a serpent. The whole masterpiece is a literal representation of Chapter twelve – there is even the crown of stars. Above, God the Father instructs an angel to place a pair of wings on the woman’s shoulders. At the same time the Child looks and reaches towards Him. Rubens had the genius idea of painting God in a faint manner, to suggest His spirituality.
The Last Judgment by Buffalmacco
The most powerful scene of the Apocalypse is definitely the Last Judgment, the principal theme of Chapter Twenty. Part of this fame is certainly due to the incredible work of Michelangelo in Rome. However, many other artists depicted this subject in their own personal way.
Two hundred years before the Sistine Chapel, the painter Buonamico Buffalmacco realized two related frescoes representing the Last Judgment and Hell, in the Cemetery of Pisa. In Gothic art, artists should follow a canon for the representations. For example, they should include the New Jerusalem at the top of the work and Christ dividing the scene into good people and damned ones. Although not breaking these rules, Buffalmacco introduced some very interesting and original elements. He had a larer space than usual, so he took advantage of this, painting the Hell fresco next to the Last Judgment instead of below. Moreover, both Christ and the Virgin conduct the Judgment. The temper of Christ is also interesting: severe, condemning, with a raised arm. Did Michelangelo study these frescoes, perhaps?
In the part of Hell, a huge, green Satan shocks the viewer. All around him the damned people occupy different zones like in Dante’s Commedia.
The Last Judgment by Bosch
Same subject but different details for Hieronymus Bosch. Bosch’s Last Judgment is a triptych and is filled with his typical dream-like elements. The central panel represents the actual Last Judgment, where Jesus, the Virgin Mary, and the apostles look down on a chaotic earth. As usual, Bosch’s tiny figures often do not wear clothes, face strange creatures, and sometimes battle. The dominant color is vermilion red. On earth it is probably a symbol of the dangers of human passions, while on Christ’s robe it may be the allegory of His status of God. The panel on the left represents the expulsion from the Garden of Eden. On the right, instead, like in Buffalmacco’s frescoes, Bosch painted a representation of Hell in which green demonic creatures surround the damned.
Broader Sense of Apocalypse
In the 20th century, some painters rediscovered the apocalyptic theme. However, they did not represent specific scenes, but rather the feelings of uncertainty and fear which permeates a possible end of the world.
Being the father of abstract modern art, Wassily Kandinsky made his own Last Judgment without figures. He “only” used colors and forms that could effectively represent the strong emotions evoked by the Apocalypse. The center of the painting has a small, irregular, black shape. Surrounding it is a vortex of colored lines and dots. Open-ended and closed shapes overlap colors and dots. This circular motion may recall the tumultuous movement downwards into Hell.
More recently, Nabil Kanso depicted the Apocalypse in a series of over 150 paintings and works on papers done in 1982-84. In these works, some figures return, but no specific scenes of the Apocalypse are represented. A real sense of terror is immediately provoked in the observer by the dark and violent colors. The sketched expressions of the human-like creatures even increase this feeling. This sort of generalization of the Apocalypse also makes it more universally comprehensible.
What if the meaning of “apocalypse” were even further extended, including real disasters like wars? See here for a perfect example!