Nihal Chand and the Kishangarh School

Maya M. Tola 29 March 2020 min Read

Nihal Chand was an esteemed member of the royal atelier of Kishangarh in the 18th century, under the employ of Crown Prince Sawant Singh. While many royal courts from the princely states of Northwestern India were important artistic centers, the Kishangarh school, and specifically the works of Nihal Singh, became the most well-known and recognizable artworks of the Rajputana.

Jewel of the Rajputana

was a small kingdom-state located in central Rajasthan (in Northern India) from
1611 to 1948. The Kishangarh school of paintings emerged in the 18th century,
distinguishing themselves for their distinct style.

Radha, the Beloved of Krishna, ca. 1750 © The Met, New York.

Distinguishing Features of Kishangarh School

paintings are instantly identifiable by the sharp elongated facial features of
the men and women, the pointed chins, receding foreheads, lotus-shaped and
half-closed eyes, and serpentine locks of hair. The subjects of the paintings
are usually set in large panoramic landscapes that portray the beauty of
Rajasthan’s landscapes and incredible Rajasthani architecture of ornate marble
structures, traditional archways, and open terraces.

The Bower of Quiet Passion, ca. 1750 © San Diego Museum of Art.

Influence from the Mughal School

After the decline of the Mughal painters’ academy under the Aurangzeb, many Mughal court painters sought new employment among the royals of the Rajputana and the Company school patrons. Bhavani Das was one such accomplished member of the Mughal school who joined the ranks of the Kishangarh court painters around 1719. As a result, the influence of the Mughal style is evident in Rajput works of art. Bhavani Das was Nihal Chand’s mentor.

Nihal Chand
Lady with a Crane, ca. 1750, Kishangarh School (Rajasthan, India). Source: British Museum, London.

Distinction from the Mughal School

At first glance, there are significant visual similarities between Mughal and Rajput works. However, there exist significant differences in the subjects, dress designs, architectural details and landscape patterns of the artworks. Rajput works are more naturalistic when compared to Mughal works and emphasize heavily the religious fervor sought by the Rajput Hindu patrons, who were often ardent devotees of Krishna.

Krishna Celebrates Holi with Radha and the Gopis, ca. 1750-60 © Museum of Fine Arts, Boston.

Depiction of Time in Indian Works

Western paintings usually depict one moment in time on a single canvas, while Indian paintings may portray multiple points of time in a single painting. As a result in these artworks, a character may appear more than once in a single piece. This is all the more impressive when taken into consideration the vast narrative conveyed in the small surface area of these miniature paintings.

Nihal Chand
Krishna and Radha in a Boat of Love, ca. 1750. Source: Wikimedia Commons.

Role of Crown Prince Sawant Singh

Singh is often credited for the remarkable artistic achievements of Nihal
Chand. He is most notably remembered for his great affection towards his
step-mother’s servant and court singer, Vishnupriya. Nihal Chand memorialized
the passionate courtship of Sawant Singh and Vishnupriya in his paintings.

Portrait of Maharaja Savant Singh with Consort, Bani Thani, ca. mid-1700s © Cleveland Museum of Art.

Divinization of Sawant Singh and Vishnupriya

Singh was a devout follower of the ‘Vallabhacharya’, a Krishna cult influential
in Rajasthan and Gujarat. In his renderings of the royal couple, Nihal Chand
evoked the divine and transcendental love affair of Krishna with the milkmaid,
Radha. Divinization of rulers in artworks is a fairly common concept,
particularly in Hindu works. Nihal Singh depicted Sawant Singh as the
blue-skinned Krishna and his beloved Vishnupriya, as Radha.

Nihal Chand
Att. to Nihal Chand, Krishna and Radha in a Pavilion, ca. 1750. Source: Wikimedia Commons.

Bani Thani

was a glamorous woman and was well known for her beauty and impeccable style.
She was referred to as “Bani Thani”, which loosely translated means
“she who is all dressed up”. Nihal Chand portrayed Vishnupriya in his
paintings in the classic Kishangarh style with sharp and elongated features.
The henna designs on her palms, the painted fingernails, the sheer odhani (a
traditional covering garment) and the opulent jewelry of gold and pearls, form
the quintessential image of feminine beauty of the Rajputana in the 18th

iconic Bani Thani by Nihal Chand was based on a rough sketch by the Crown
Prince – a talented poet and artist himself – before he handed it over to Nihal
Chand to paint. This painting became the very symbol of Kishangarh miniatures
and was even featured on a commemorative postage stamp issued by the Indian
Government in 1973.

Nihal Chand
Radha (Bani Thani), ca. 1750. Source: Wikimedia Commons.

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