Masterpiece Stories

Masterpiece Story: Perseus Rescuing Andromeda by Cavaliere d’Arpino

James W Singer 25 October 2020 min Read

The roar of the sea monster blends with the screams of the scared princess! The chained beauty awaits her bloody death as the ugly beast lurches forward. Suddenly there is a flash of metal, the sound of wings, and the feeling of hope. A great hero comes flying down on his winged horse and slays the monster before it touches the princess. She is saved and falls in love with her savior. This dramatic story is captured in Cavaliere d’Arpino’s Perseus Rescuing Andromeda painted in 1594-5. It now hangs in the Clark Art Institute and showcases the mighty Greek myth through the lens of a great but forgotten Italian Baroque artist.

Cavaliere d'Arpino, Perseus Rescuing Andromeda, 1594-5, Clark Art Institute, Williamstown, USA.
Cavaliere d’Arpino, Perseus Rescuing Andromeda, 1594-5, Clark Art Institute, Williamstown, USA.

Cavaliere d’Arpino worked in Rome from the late 16th to mid 17th century. His contemporaries included the famous Caravaggio and Bernini. The works by these three artists were collected by the famous connoisseur and art patron, Cardinal Scipione Borghese. Cavaliere d’Arpino’s works hung alongside works by Raphael and Titian in the famous Borghese collection. Cavaliere d’Arpino was a man famous and lauded in his time, but now is nearly forgotten. Why is that so? It is because painting Neoclassical mythological scenes has become outdated and is no longer appreciated. Modern audiences want to view and study earthly, human, and realistic subjects. They do not want heavenly, immortal, and unrealistic subjects. Perseus Rescuing Andromeda has fallen victim to this changing fashion in art appreciation, which is such a shame because this painting has such passion and artistic expertise that it merits recognition.

Cavaliere d'Arpino, Perseus Rescuing Andromeda, 1594-5, Clark Art Institute, Williamstown, USA. Split Composition.
Cavaliere d’Arpino, Perseus Rescuing Andromeda, 1594-5, Clark Art Institute, Williamstown, USA. Split Composition.

Cavaliere d’Arpino’s Perseus Rescuing Andromeda depicts the demigod Perseus and winged-horse Pegasus saving Princess Andromeda from the sea monster Cetus. The painting’s composition is divided vertically in half. Princess Andromeda dominates the right half of the canvas, while Perseus, Pegasus, and Cetus dominate the left half. The two animals and Perseus are all male, while Andromeda is female. A division of the sexes correlates with the division of the action. Andromeda is languid and still, while the male figures are energetic and moving. Separated gender roles are portrayed in this painting. The female protagonist takes a passive role and is being saved, while the male protagonist takes an active role and is the savior.

Cavaliere d'Arpino, Perseus Rescuing Andromeda, 1594-5, Clark Art Institute, Williamstown, USA. Enlarged Detail of Demigod Perseus.
Cavaliere d’Arpino, Perseus Rescuing Andromeda, 1594-5, Clark Art Institute, Williamstown, USA. Enlarged detail.

Princess Andromeda finds herself chained and abandoned to the rocks because of her parents’ recklessness. Her mother, Queen Cassiopeia, boasted that Andromeda was more beautiful than the immortal Nereids which offended them and Poseidon, god of the sea. Poseidon flooded the kingdom and sent the sea monster Cetus in revenge. Then King Cepheus was informed by an oracle that if he sacrificed his daughter, Princess Andromeda, to the sea monster that Poseidon would be pleased and would withdraw his wrath from the land. Hence, Andromeda is a victim of circumstance and is paying for her mother’s crime of hubris. Her sacrificial suffering is captured in Perseus Rescuing Andromeda.

Cavaliere d'Arpino, Perseus Rescuing Andromeda, 1594-5, Clark Art Institute, Williamstown, USA. Enlarged Detail of Sea Monster Cetus.
Cavaliere d’Arpino, Perseus Rescuing Andromeda, 1594-5, Clark Art Institute, Williamstown, USA. Enlarged detail.

Cavaliere d'Arpino, Perseus Rescuing Andromeda, 1594-5, Clark Art Institute, Williamstown, USA. Enlarged Detail of Princess Andromeda.
Cavaliere d’Arpino, Perseus Rescuing Andromeda, 1594-5, Clark Art Institute, Williamstown, USA. Enlarged detail.

The timeless beauty of Perseus Rescuing Andromeda comes from the controlled use of a muted colour scheme enhanced by bold flashes of colour. Shades of brown, grey, and white dominate the foreground in the guise of rocks, Andromeda’s complexion, the monster’s skin, and Pegasus’s hide. Then gorgeous shades of blue dominate the sky and sea with bright yellows found in the cape of Perseus and in the setting sun. The colours harmonize and create patterns of balance and contrast. The subtle shading on Andromeda’s thighs and stomach are exquisite, while the harsh shadows on the monster’s body are vivid and striking. More recognition should be given to Cavaliere d’Arpino’s Perseus Rescuing Andromeda. It has an understated charm equal to more famous paintings without the due credit.


Works Referenced

  • Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica. “Andromeda.” Greek Mythology. Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., April 29, 2009.
  • Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica. “Perseus.” Greek Mythology. Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., August 28, 2019.
  • Jung, Wolfgang. “Architecture and City in Italy from the Early Baroque to the Early Neo-Classical Period.” In Baroque: Architecture, Sculpture & Painting, edited by Rolf Toman, 12–76. Potsdam, Germany: h.f.ullmann, 2010.
  • Perseus Rescuing Andromeda.” Museum Collections. Clark Art Institute. Accessed October 11, 2020.

Recommended

John Singer Sargent, Lady Agnew of Lochnaw, 1892, Scottish National Gallery, Edinburgh, UK. Detail. Masterpiece Stories

Masterpiece Story: Lady Agnew of Lochnaw by John Singer Sargent

Lady Agnew of Lochnaw is a masterpiece by John Singer Sargent. It portrays a Victorian woman in a bold, modern manner. Sargent combined masterful...

James W Singer 5 December 2022

Gian Lorenzo Bernini, Ecstasy of Saint Teresa, 1647-1652, Santa Maria della Vittoria, Roma, Italia. Masterpiece Stories

Ecstasy of Saint Teresa by Gian Lorenzo Bernini: Divine Bliss or Pure Erotic Pleasure?

Among the works of the famous sculptor and architect Gian Lorenzo Bernini (1598–1680), the sculptural group called Ecstasy of Saint Teresa remains...

Montaine Dumont 7 December 2022

William Blake The Ancient of Days, from Europe A Prophecy, 1794, watercolor etching, The British Museum, London, UK. Masterpiece Stories

Masterpiece Story: The Ancient of Days by William Blake

The Ancient of Days, designed, printed, and hand colored by William Blake, was the frontispiece of his 1794 poem Europe a Prophecy. An epic...

Catriona Miller 28 November 2022

Sir Edwin Landseer, Monarch of the Glen, ca 1851, Scottish National Gallery, Edinburgh, UK. Detail. Masterpiece Stories

Masterpiece Story: Monarch of the Glen by Edwin Landseer

Monarch of the Glen by Edwin Landseer is one of the most famous British paintings of the 19th century. It is a Victorian melodrama at its most...

James W Singer 21 November 2022