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Made for Reflection: Yayoi Kusama’s Narcissus Garden

Yayoi Kusama, Narcissus Garden, 1966 Venice Biennale; Kusama’s Narcissus Garden
Yayoi Kusama, Narcissus Garden, 1966, during the 33rd Venice Biennale. Photo: dazeddigital.com

Women Artists

Made for Reflection: Yayoi Kusama’s Narcissus Garden

Let’s take a look at one of the most interesting works in Yayoi Kusama’s career. Was it commercial or high art? A performance or an installation?

Back in 1966, Japanese artist Yayoi Kusama (b. 1929) first exhibited one of her most iconic works, Narcissus Garden. It was held during the 33rd Venice Biennale near the Italian pavilion. This work was comprised of 1,500 mirrored plastic orbs which were laid on the ground, out in the open. During the exhibition Kusama, wearing a golden kimono, stood among the orbs and sold them to visitors for two dollars each. This act may raise many questions regarding the work: Is it commercial or high art? A performance or an installation?

Yayoi Kusama, Narcissus Garden, 2017, National Gallery Singapore; Kusama’s Narcissus Garden

Yayoi Kusama, Narcissus Garden, 2017, National Gallery Singapore. Photo: tsingapore.com

The name of the work is derived from Echo and Narcissus, a myth by Ovid. According to the myth, Narcissus escaped to a spring or a lake, and when he saw his reflection upon the waters of the pond, he fell in love with it and could not turn his gaze away. Narcissus Garden visualises the pond, and each visitor plays the role of Narcissus. The orbs were made for interaction, to examine one’s reflection upon them and to even purchase them.


Today many artists use mirrors in their art, from Anish Kapoor to Jeff Koons. But in 1966 it was a non-traditional art material, and to use it in a work that was exhibited in one of the most prestigious events in the art world was considered a radical idea. It is no wonder that Kusama was eventually expelled from the 33rd Biennale. She did not return until the 45th Venice Biennale in 1993.

Yayoi Kusama, Kusama with Pumpkin; Kusama’s Narcissus Garden

Yayoi Kusama, Kusama with Pumpkin, 2010 © Yayoi Kusama Installation View: Aichi Triennale 2010. Courtesy Ota Fine Arts, Tokyo/ Singapore; Victoria Miro Gallery, London; David Zwirner, New York; and KUSAMA Enterprise

In later exhibitions of Narcissus Garden, the artist was not present and the orbs were made of steel rather than plastic. Yet they were nothing less than impressive: In 2009 the orbs were installed in a pond in Inhotim Museum, Brazil. They floated upon the surface of the water and constantly changed their location due to the wind and other climate conditions. In 2018 MoMA presented Narcissus Garden at Fort Tilden, New York as part of its Rockaway! festival. The former industrial space, with its decaying infrastructure and graffiti writings on the wall, gets an interesting twist through the shiny silver orbs that were laid on the ground. It is somewhat reminiscent of Kusama’s rebellious act at the Biennale.

Yayoi Kusama, Narcissus Garden Rockaway! festival, Fort Tilden New York; Kusama’s Narcissus Garden

Rockaway! 2018 featuring a site-specific installation of Narcissus Garden by Yayoi Kusama. Artwork ©YAYOI KUSAMA. Artwork courtesy Ota Fine Arts, Tokyo/Singapore/Shanghai; Victoria Miro, London/Venice; and David Zwirner, New York. Image courtesy MoMA PS1. Photo: Pablo Enriquez.


Currently the Fort Tilden exhibition is on display and is free of charge. If you plan to see this or a different exhibition of Narcissus Garden, take your time to examine the orbs, pay attention to the way the surrounding conditions affect them. You will notice the impression of the orbs as a collective is indeed one of a pond made for reflection, of both your appearance and your mind.

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Noa is an undergraduate Art History student who lives just outside Tel Aviv. She enjoys traveling the globe, visiting exciting art exhibitions and overanalysing the hidden symbolism of various TV shows.

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