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Calumny of Apelles – Botticelli’s Final Painting

Ancient Greece

Calumny of Apelles – Botticelli’s Final Painting

Botticelli’s final painting with a mythological subject is based on a lost painting by an ancient Greek painter Apelles. He ventured to paint a work according to a description provided by Lucian in his “Dialogues”. Although Botticelli was neither the first nor the last artist to depict the theme, his work is stunning with detail, allegory and precision, yet sadly not very well known.

Botticelli, Calumny of Apelles, 1495, Uffizi, Florence, botticelli's final painting

Sandro Botticelli, Calumny of Apelles, 1495, Uffizi, Florence

The painting is really tiny (compared to the majority of his works), 62x 91 cm, while his detailed technique rather brings to mind miniatures than images on wood. Look at the miniature mythological and religious scenes on the architectural reliefs in the background- they are so sharp and clear, so thoroughly thought.

botticelli's final painting

Sandro Botticelli, Calumny of Apelles, detail, 1495, Uffizi, Florence

The small size and the technique suggest that the painting was not intended for display but was meant to be hidden and treasured, enjoyed solely on a special occasion.

botticelli's final painting

Sandro Botticelli, Calumny of Apelles, detail, 1495, Uffizi, Florence

We’re not sure whether the painting was commissioned, it might have been painted by Botticelli to express his resentment for an unjust accusation of a crime he had not committed (an anonymous denunciation to the authorities accused him of sodomy), since the painting is an allegory for a real story of an unjust accusation that happened to the painter Apelles. He had been accused by a rival painter Antiphilos for having allegedly participated in a plot against the king of Egypt. Anger and shame experienced by Apellus summoned to the king are embodied by a young man in a loincloth.

Sandro Botticelli, Calumny of Apelles, detail, 1495, Uffizi, Florence

He is being dragged in front of the king’s throne by Calumny. She is holding a torch which may suggest that the spread of lies is as quick as the spread of light. Her hair is being arranged with white ribbons by Fraud, while Perfidy decorates her head with roses, both being symbols of purity and innocence here subverted. Can he expect a just judgement? It doesn’t seem so as the king is gullibly listening to two beautiful figures personifying Ignorance and Suspicion. They’re whispering calumnies to his ‘donkey ears’ of King Midas. He’s extending his arm towards a man in a black cloak who represents Rancour (Envy) and obscures king’s view of the scene below.

Botticelli, Calumny of Apelles, detail, 1495, Uffizi, Florence botticelli's final painting

Sandro Botticelli, Calumny of Apelles, detail, 1495, Uffizi, Florence

A young woman in the left is, of course, naked Truth. She’s full of indignation and she points towards Heavens expecting the last judgment to come from God. Her beautiful figure is juxtaposed with an old woman in black mourning who stands for Punishment and looks at Truth with scorn (or is it envy?).

Botticelli, Calumny of Apelles, detail, 1495, Uffizi, Florence botticelli's final painting

Sandro Botticelli, Calumny of Apelles, detail, 1495, Uffizi, Florence

Find out more:

7 Things You Didn’t Know About Primavera by Botticelli

Everything You Must Know About Sandro Botticelli

  

Magda, art historian and Italianist, she writes about art because she cannot make it herself. She loves committed and political artists like Ai Weiwei or the Futurists; like Joseph Beuys she believes that art can change us and we can change the world.

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