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Barnett Newman, A Pillar of Abstract Expressionism

Barnett Newman, Cathedra, 1951, oil and acrylic on canvas, Stedelijk Museum, Amsterdam, Netherlands.
Barnett Newman, Cathedra, 1951, Stedelijk Museum, Amsterdam, Netherlands.

Abstraction

Barnett Newman, A Pillar of Abstract Expressionism

When one thinks of Abstract Expressionism, the name of Barnett Newman pops up immediately. That is only fair since he is a pillar of the movement and his contribution to contemporary art is huge. Newman was a very philosophical person and his work had deep meanings. He considered art to be an act of self-creation and a declaration of freedom. Even though he wasn’t acknowledged during the 1950s when he produced phenomenal pieces, Newman found recognition by the end of his life. The Minimalists found their father in his art. Today, his works can be found in many major museums all over the world and they are sold for millions of dollars at auctions.

Barnett Newman was born on January 29, 1905. He was the son of Jewish immigrants from Poland. He studied philosophy at the City College of New York, from which he graduated in 1927. For the next 15 years, Newman worked in the family clothing manufacturing business and as a substitute art teacher in New York schools.

In 1933, he ran for mayor of New York. He advocated for civic programs for the arts and anti-pollution measures. At the same time, Newman had been studying the writings of Henri David Thoreau and the anarchist Peter Kropotkin. Moreover, he was very interested in botany, geology, ornithology, and tribal art. Despite his many interests, Newman always stayed engaged with society. He maintained an awareness of all modern issues, such as Nazism and the atomic bomb.

Barnett Newman’s Early Works

In the 1930s, Newman made several paintings which were said to be in an Expressionist style. However, he destroyed them all because he thought they were unworthy. He started painting again almost a decade later. It wasn’t until 1944 that Newman felt his work was finally mature. Actually, it was when he joined the New York milieu of Abstract Expressionists. The school included artists such as Clyfford Still and Jackson Pollock.

Barnett Newman, Pagan Void, 1946, oil on canvas, National Gallery of Art, Washington, USA.
Barnett Newman, Pagan Void, 1946, National Gallery of Art, Washington, DC, USA.

In 1948, he painted Ornament I, a piece that proved Newman had found his own voice. A vertical band, he called it a ‘zip’, connected the upper and lower margins of the painting. The zips stand out from fields of color in sparse compositions. This led the critics to call him a “color field painter.”

Ornament I, 1948, oil on canvas, Museum of Modern Art, New York, USA.
Barnett Newman, Ornament I, 1948, Museum of Modern Art, New York, NY, USA.

Newman wanted to start from scratch. Thus he painted as if painting never existed before.

Zip as a Work of Art

The zips both separated and united the composition at the same time. In some of his 1950s paintings, the zip is all there is to the work. So the paintings were purely abstract and many of them originally untitled. Later on Newman named them, hinting at a specific subject each time. They often had a Jewish theme. For instance, the painting Abraham (1949) has the name of the biblical patriarch and Barnett’s father.

Barnett Newman, The Wild, 1950, oil on canvas, Museum of Modern Art, New York, USA.
Barnett Newman, The Wild, 1950, Museum of Modern Art, New York, NY, USA.
Barnett Newman, Abraham, 1949, oil on canvas, Museum of Modert Art, New York, USA.
Barnett Newman, Abraham, 1949, Museum of Modert Art, New York, NY, USA.

From 1958 to 1966, Newman created what would be his peak achievement, the Stations of the Cross series. The series is all in black and white. Quite a religious theme, the subtitle of the series is Lema sabachthani – Why have you forsaken me? According to the New Testament, those were Jesus’ last words on the cross. Stations of the Cross is a memorial to the victims of the Holocaust.

Barnett Newman, First Station, 1958, magna on canvas, National Gallery of Art, Washington, USA.
Barnett Newman, First Station, 1958, National Gallery of Art, Washington, DC, USA.
Ninth Station, 1964, acrylic on canvas, National Gallery of Art, Washington, USA.
Barnett Newman, Ninth Station, 1964, National Gallery of Art, Washington, DC, USA.

Vibrant Colors in Late Works

In his latest works, such as in the Who’s Afraid of Red, Yellow, and Blue series, Newman painted in pure vibrant colors on very large canvases. Anna’s Light (1968), named after his mother when she passed away three years earlier, is his largest work ever: 8.5m by 2.7m. He also worked with shaped canvases and sometimes he switched from oil colors to acrylics.

Barnett Newman, Who's Afraid of Red, Yellow, and Blue IV, 1969-70, oil on canvas, Artsy.
Barnett Newman, Who’s Afraid of Red, Yellow, and Blue IV, 1969-70. Artsy.

Nonetheless, Barnett Newman wasn’t only a painter. He was a sculptor and a lithographer too. His sculptures were only a few sleek pieces in steel. Broken Obelisk (1963) is the most popular and the most monumental. It represents an inverted obelisk, whose point balances on the apex of a pyramid. He also created a series of lithographs, the 18 Cantos (1963-4), and a small number of etchings.

Barnett Newman, Broken Obelisk, 1963-9, Cor-Ten steel, Museum of Modern Art, New York, USA.
Barnett Newman, Broken Obelisk, 1963-9, Museum of Modern Art, New York, NY, USA.
Canto VII, 1963-4, lithograph on paper, Tate Gallery, London, UK.
Barnett Newman, Canto VII, 1963-4, Tate, London, England, UK.

Finding Recognition

During the 1950s he was mostly mocked and dismissed as an artist. People preferred more colorful painters, such as Jackson Pollock. Even though Clement Greenberg, an influential art critic of the time, wrote enthusiastically about him, the situation didn’t change. Barnett Newman died on July 4, 1970. It was only in the last years of his life that he was taken seriously. Today, MoMA, Stedelijk Museum (Amsterdam), Tate Gallery, Art Institute of Chicago, and many other great museums and galleries have Barnett Newman’s paintings in their permanent exhibitions.

Barnett Newman, Vic Heroicus Sublimis, 1950-1, oil on canvas, Museum of Modern Art, New York, USA.
Barnett Newman, Vic Heroicus Sublimis, 1950-1, Museum of Modern Art, New York, NY, USA.

Read more on Abstract Expressionism:

Errika has a master’s degree in Modern and Contemporary History and dreams of becoming a curator. She writes articles about modern and contemporary art, fashion, and cinema. In her free time, she sculpts and paints miniatures and reads books.

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