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An Avant-garde Love Story: Goncharova and Larionov’s Romance

goncharova and larionov's romance
Mikhail Larionov, Lovers, 1904, Private collection

Love Story

An Avant-garde Love Story: Goncharova and Larionov’s Romance

Valentine’s Day is coming up so it’s high time to get into the romantic mood. Since it’s already been our little tradition to feature a love story, this year can be no different and today I’ll show you an avant-garde love story, not because it’s very different from all other ones, but because it involves two avant-garde artists from Russia at dawn of the 20th century. Time for Goncharova and Larionov’s romance!

Numbers

Mikhail Larionov, Lovers, 1904, Private collection, goncharova and larionov's romance

Mikhail Larionov, Lovers, 1904, Private collection

Those who believe in numerology would say that their fate was written straightaway in the numbers: Mikhail was born on the 3rd of June, Natalia a month later, on the 3rd of July of 1881. Just month apart, they arrived in the same year to the School of Painting, Sculpture, and Architecture since both the families moved to Moscow the same year. (There are no coincidences in life, one could say.) Although Natalia enrolled into sculpture course, whereas Mikail chose painting (he studied under the painter Konstantin Korovin), soon they met and fell for each other. Larionov was not the best student, he often skipped classes and was defiant of school rules, while Natalia was a dedicated student who after 3 years resigned from her 10-year-long course convinced by her boyfriend who saw in her a painter, not a sculptor.

Mikhail Larionov, Natalia Goncharova, 1915, Tretyakov gallery, Moscow, goncharova and larionov's romance

Mikhail Larionov, Natalia Goncharova, 1915, Tretyakov Gallery, Moscow

Three days Natalia was mad at Mikhail for his words that she was too preoccupied with form and that she should open her eyes onto the world. But when he came to her and found a room filled with paintings and drawings, he knew she had talent. Natalia admitted later that “suddenly, I understood that something I wanted in sculpture was, actually, to be found in painting… and it was painting”.

Controversy

Mikhail Larionov, Self portrait, 1910, Collection Of A. K. Tomilina-Larionova, Paris, goncharova and larionov's romance

Mikhail Larionov, Self-portrait, 1910, Collection of A. K. Tomilina-Larionova, Paris

The lovers didn’t care about the conventions of their era: they moved in together although they weren’t married, which upset Natalia’s parents who first didn’t accept poor Mikhail but later they changed their mind when Tretyakov Gallery bought his first painting. The couple was allowed to move into the apartment owned by Natalia’s parents and lived there until 1915, living a scandalous lifestyle: they founded avant-garde groups (such as Jack of  Diamonds), walked topless in the wealthy streets of Moscow (Natalia), was kicked out from school (Mikhail), had a trial on alleged pornography in nude life studies in one of  exhibitions (Natalia), tattoed himself and other people (Mikhail).

Mikhail Larionov, Venus and Michael, 1912, State Russian Museum, Saint Petersburg, goncharova and larionov's romance

Mikhail Larionov, Venus and Michael, 1912, State Russian Museum, Saint Petersburg

Reciprocal inspiration

Natalia Goncharova, Cats, 1912, The Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York City, goncharova and larionov's romance

Natalia Goncharova, Cats, 1912, The Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York City

When Jack of Diamond’s exhibition became a huge scandal for the avant-garde nature of the works exhibited, the couple didn’t stop pushing the boundaries of bourgeoisie taste dominating Moscow. In 1912 Mikhail invented a new trend in painting, Rayonism, which was a style representing the physical world by means of colour and light. Proud Natalia spoke of him: “Larionov is my conscience in work, my tuning-fork. My touchstone for whether I do false. We are very different, and he sees me from inside of me, not of him. Like I see him.”

Mikhail Larionov, Cockerel and Hen, 1912, The Tretyakov Gallery, Moscow, goncharova and larionov's romance

Mikhail Larionov, Cockerel and Hen, 1912, The Tretyakov Gallery, Moscow

They published the Rayonist manifesto in 1913, signed by 9 other artists. Although Mikhail was the official inventor of it, it was Natalia who became its most active practitioner considered by her contemporaries “the artist with the richest paints.” Their art put foundations for abstraction in Russia and the couple quickly became famous. They did various commissions: illustrations for books, patterns for textiles, women’s clothes and wallpapers. Moreover, prior to World War I, they participated in decorating the cabaret Pink Lantern and featured in the first futuristic film The Drama in the Futurist Cabaret No. 13 made in Russia, directed by Vladimir Kasyanov.

War and salvation

Natalia Goncharova, Portrait of M. F. Larionov and his platoon, 1911, State Museum, Sankt Petersburg, goncharova and larionov's romance

Natalia Goncharova, Portrait of M. F. Larionov and His Platoon, 1911, State Russian Museum, Sankt Petersburg

When in 1914 the war broke out, Mikhail was drafted. He was heavily wounded and had to be hospitalized for months. In the meantime, Michel Fokine, Sergei Diaghilev, and Alexandre Benois came to Moscow intrigued by Goncharova and Larionov’s art. Then, Benois offered Natalia a position as a stage designer for Diaghilev’s ballet The Golden Cockerel. In 1915 the couple officially left Natalia’s parents flat and moved to Switzerland and then France, where they made a fantastic career in stage and costume design working for Diaghilev and other troupes, while Mikhail even choreographed the dances.

New relationships

Natalia Goncharova, Spanish Flu, undated, State Tretyakov gallery, Moscow, goncharova and larionov's romance

Natalia Goncharova, Spanish Flu, undated, Tretyakov Gallery, Moscow

Surprisingly, the two found new life partners when in Paris: Natalia got together with a family friend Orest Ivanovich Rosenfeld, editor-in-chief of the newspaper Populaire, and Mikhail with his secretary and model Alexandra (Sashenka) Tomilina (she even moved into the same block of flats and rented there an apartment below). Apparently in order to facilitate Larionov’s work who would spend days at Tomilina’s, but returned home for the night. Both artists accepted their new unions, they still worked together and travelled for holidays with both their ‘dear friends’. They even eventually decided to marry, yet as Natalia explained, it was only for legal reasons, so that each could inherit the rights to the art of another.

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Magda, art historian and Italianist, she writes about art because she cannot make it herself. She loves committed and political artists like Ai Weiwei or the Futurists; like Joseph Beuys she believes that art can change us and we can change the world.

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