182 years ago Edgar Degas was born. One of the founders of Impressionism, he didn’t like the term itself and preferred to be called “Realist” or “Independent”. Ballet dancers were one of his main subjects. “People call me the painter of dancing girls,” Degas once told a Parisian art dealer Ambroise Vollard. “It has never occurred to them that my chief interest in dancers lies in rendering movement and painting pretty clothes.” On this occasion we want to show you 8 beautiful ballet dancers he is so famous of.
The Dancing Class, c. 1870
This is the first of Degas’ ballet dancers scene. The dancer in the centre is Joséphine Gaujelin, who later became an actress at the Gymnase, a theater known for its comedies and popular dramas. Gaujelin posed in a dance costume for a number of drawings, as Degas worked on his first ballet pictures. Why ballet subjects – among other reasons, they were easier to sell, and Degas needed money.
2. Musicians in the Orchestra, c. 1870
Degas painted the “Orchestra Musicians” in 1872 and revised it a few years later, enlarging it and turning the horizontal format into a vertical. He also overpainted parts of the initial composition.
3. The Foyer of the Opera at Rue Le Peletier
The Foyer of the Opera at Rue Le Peletier shows ten ballerinas being examined in the great hall. The white-clad Louis François Mérante, instructor at the opera house, is giving orders which the dancers have to follow. Opera at Rue Le Peletier as an old opera house which burned down in 1873. Degas never really liked Charles Garnier’s replacement, which opened in 1875. By far the largest opera house in the world at that time, this magnificent monstrosity employed 7,000 people, including a corps de ballet of 200.
4. Rehearsal of a Ballet on Stage, 1874
The style of this painting resembles a grisaille work. The non-colourful chiaroscuro is some kind of an allusion to the new visual technique of photography. Here Degas chose a viewpoint slightly from above, to one side, with the focus on the stage bordered by the footlights. This painting was immediately noticed at the first Impressionist exhibition in 1874. The painter Giuseppe De Nittis wrote to a friend: “I remember a drawing that must have been of a dance rehearsal […] and I can tell you it was extremely beautiful: the muslin costumes were so diaphanous, and the movements so true to life that it has to be seen to be believed; it is just impossible to describe”.
5. The Star, 1878
The painting shows the star of the show dancing a solo turn on an empty stage. On the left we can see, hiding shadow behind the curtain. This is the young dancer’s patron. Getting behind the scene wasn’t easy. It was a privilege paid for by wealthy male subscription holders, who often flirted with the dancers and laid siege to their dressing rooms. In a 1882 letter to a friend Degas wrote: “My dear Hecht, have you the power to get the Opéra to give me a pass for the day of the dance examination, which, so I have been told, is to be on Thursday? I have done so many of these dance examinations without having seen them that I am a little ashamed of it.”
6. The Pink Dancers, Before the Ballet, 1884
Around 1880 Degas’s changed his palette – from grays to brilliant colours, ranging from red to russet. This came with a change of style and technique, in which pastels became his dominant medium. Furthermore, he expanded the possibilities offered by pastels by combining them with gouache, watercolour, oils mixed freely with turpentine, and even monotypes.
7. Blue Dancers, 1897
The drawings Degas made backstage were few compared with the number he produced in his studio, where he paid small money to ballerinas to pose. Fun fact: Degas’s studio was once visited by an inspector from the police morals unit, wanting to know why so many little girls were coming and going. The fact that ballerinas often were prostitutes is a different story.
8. The Little Fourteen-Year-Old Dancer
In his mid-40s, Degas, who had always suffered from poor eyesight and would ultimately go blind, started to make wax figures, partly for his own pleasure, partly to have something he could mold and feel and not just visualize. At the sixth impressionist exhibition in the spring of 1881, he presented the only sculpture that he would ever exhibit in public. The Little Dancer Aged Fourteen was not so warmly received when she first appeared. A nearly life-size wax figure with real hair and dressed in a cloth tutu, it provoked a strong reaction from critics who denounced the dancer as ugly. Marie van Goethem, the model for the figure, was the daughter of a Belgian tailor and a laundress. These dancers were known as “petits rats de l’opéra,” literally “opera rats”, presumably because of their scurrying around the opera stage in tiny, fast–moving steps. But the derogatory association of the name with dirt and poverty was also intentional. Young, pretty, and poor, the ballet students also were potential targets of male “protectors”.